Biography of Frank W. Benson

<em>The Hilltop</em>
The Hilltop, l905. Oil on canvas, 7l x 5l". Collection of the Malden Public Library.
The principles of Impressionism began to dominate Benson's work by 1901, the year that the Bensons first summered on the island of North Haven in Maine's Penobscot Bay. His summer home "Wooster Farm," which they rented and finally bought in 1906, became the setting for some of Benson's best known work and there, it seemed, he found endless inspiration. Benson's sparkling plein-air paintings of his children--Eleanor, George, Elisabeth and Sylvia--capture the very essence of summer and have been widely reproduced: In The Hilltop, George and Eleanor watch the sailboat races from the headland near their house.

<em>Portrait of My Daughters</em>, 1907
Portrait of My Daughters, 1907. Oil on canvas, 26 x 36 1/8". Worcester Art Museum.
Benson's three daughters sit on a white bench in the dappled shade of an apple tree in in Portrait of My Daughters.

<em>Gaffing a Salmon</em>
Gaffing a Salmon, l928. Oil on canvas 43 3/8 " x 35 3/8". Private collection.

As a boy, Benson dreamed of being an ornithological illustrator. In mid-life, he returned to the wildfowl and sporting subjects that had remained his lifelong passion. Using etching and lithography, watercolor, oil and wash, Benson portrayed the birds observed since childhood and captured scenes of his hunting and fishing expeditions.

<em>Bluebills</em>, l9l5
Bluebills, l9l5. Intaglio engraving. l9" x l5 l/2". Reproduced by the Elson Art Publishing Company. Private collection.

Together with his two brothers-in-law, Benson bought a small hunting retreat on a hill overlooking Cape Cod's Nauset Marsh. Here, in the late 1890s, he began experimenting with black and white wash drawings. These paintings became so popular that Benson was not able to keep up with the demand. He turned to an art publishing company to have several made into it intaglio prints; twelve wash drawings are known to have been reproduced in this manner. At least two of them were given as gifts to associate members of the Boston Guild of artists, of which Benson was a founding member.

Benson was also an avid fisherman and his salmon fishing expeditions to Canada's Gaspé Peninsula where one of the high points of his summer. There, in 1921, he began the first in a series of watercolors that would eventually over 500 works.

<em>Souvenir of Florida</em>, 1930
Souvenir of Florida, 1930. Watercolor on paper, 19 x 24" . Private collection.

Benson's watercolors conveyed the joy and beauty of a sportsman's life whether in a painting of a hunter setting out decoys, a flock of ducks coming in for a landing or a grouse flushed from cover. The critics favorably compared Benson's watercolors to those of Homer. "The love of the almost primitive wilderness which appears in many of Homer's landscapes and the swift, sure touch with which he suggests rather than describes--these also characterize Benson's work," one critic wrote. "The solitude of the northern woods is very much like Homer's."

Like the wash drawings before them, Benson's watercolors proved so popular that he had great difficulty keeping up with the public demand. He often had to write to dealers declining their requests for paintings. "I had several [paintings for you]," he wrote to a gallery owner in New York City, "but people saw them and bought them about as soon as they were dry--I sold eight last week and you get what you have because I hid them."

<em>Hunter in a Boat</em>, 1915
Hunter in a Boat, 1915. Oil on canvas, 33 ¼ x 66 ½". Private collection.

Benson also painted a number of sporting scenes in oil. In such dramatic works as Hunter in a Boat one can sense the cold, biting damp of a New England winter day chilling the hunter as he pulls his boat through the choppy sea. This work, which depicts Black Rock Ledge not far from Benson's home in Salem, was one of his earliest sporting oils.

<em>Twilight</em>, 1930
Twilight, 1930. Oil on canvas, 43 3/8 x 35 3/8".Private collection.
Twilight, done nearly 20 years later, is a sporting work in an entirely different vein. More landscape than figure study, this painting expresses Benson's feelings about life in the wilderness. The tiny man silhouetted against a small patch of silver water is insignificant. His being is subordinated to the grandeur of the looming mountains and the power of the swift stream.

<em>The Black Hat</em>
The Black Hat (Lady Trying on a Hat), l904. Oil on canvas, 40 x 32". Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design. Gift of Walter Callender, Henry D. Sharpe, Howard L. Clark, and William Gammell.

If some of Benson's sporting works may be more about the landscape than the sportsman, it is also true that a number of his studio works appear to be more still life than figure study. In such paintings as The Black Hat, the chest of drawers, the objects on the table, even the hat itself, are as important to the composition as the model posing in the foreground. "A picture is merely an experiment in design," Benson once told his daughter, Eleanor. "If the design is pleasing, the picture is good, no matter whether composed of objects, still life, figures or birds. Few appreciate that what makes them admire a picture is the design made by the painter."

<em>The Silver Screen</em>
The Silver Screen, Oil on canvas. Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Beginning around 1919, Benson began a series of true still lifes. Many of these handsome tabletop arrangements, composed of objects gathered by Benson's seafaring ancestors on their trips to the Orient, have found homes in America's major museums. These porcelains, candlesticks, Oriental screens, and embroidered silk tablecloths, have been arranged and rearranged by the artist to create a number of a handsome compositions.

<em>Still Life</em>
Still Life, date unknown. Oil on canvas, 54 x 59". National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Henry Ward Ranger Fund.

Numerous accessories in Benson's still lifes reappear in several paintings. The silver screen featured as a backdrop in Still Life-- winner of the Henry Ward Ranger Fund prize and now at the National Museum of American Art--is the same screen that Benson used in The Silver Screen from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Still Life Decoration at the Chicago Art Institute. The oriental jar in The Silver Screen is also used in a still life now owned by the Corcoran Museum of Art.

<em>Phlox in a Pewter Pitcher</em>
Phlox in a Pewter Pitcher.

In addition to oils, Benson also used watercolor as a medium for executing still lifes. Most often these paintings, such as Nasturtiums in a Vase, or Phlox in a Pewter Pitcher were arrangements made from flowers gathered from Ellen Benson's gardens at North Haven.

While many collectors know Benson as a painter, a totally different group of admirers are aware of him only as an etcher of sporting scenes. It is almost as though there were two Bensons.

<em>Lighting In</em>
Lighting In, etching, 7 7/8 x 10 7/8". Private collection.

In 1911, simply has a form of recreation, Benson began experimenting with the art of etchings in his barn studio in Maine. In letters to an artist friend, Charles Woodberry, Benson revealed a growing fascination with this medium during the first few years of his printmaking. During the next four years, he completed several dozen etchings although he did not exhibit any of them. In 1915, at the urging of friends, he included a few of his etched pieces at a one-man show at the Guild of Boston Artists. The etchings sold out within a week and the demand for Benson's etchings grew steadily over the ensuing decades. Collectors placed standing orders for each new edition and, at one point, Benson had to write a dealer in dismay that "We are not exactly happy over the etching question ourselves. A sudden increase in the demand last year used up our stock in a month. This year they have been mostly sold in a week, apparently. Out of an edition of l50, we keep 25 to sell at advance prices when the first l25 are sold. Every agent but one or two has already wired or written for more prints and they are all issued except about 5 sets which I can sell ten times over. I am trying to take care of old customers, but the thing is beyond me."

<em>A Cup of Water</em>
A Cup of Water, etching. 6 7/8 x 4 7/8". Private collection.

With the etcher's needle, Benson was able to command the same mastery of light that he demonstrated years before in his sun-drenched paintings of his children on an summer hillside. Whether in a subtle portrait of his wife doing her hair by candlelight, a guide dipping a cup of water from a mountain stream, or a group of boats reflected in the water, Benson's mastery of etching was greeted with overwhelming praise by critics. Exhibitions of his etched work were held in every major city in America as well as in London. Benson has often been credited with being the founder of the school of the American sporting print and his etchings sell as briskly now as they did eighty years ago.
<em>Child With a Shell</em>
Child With a Shell, 1902. Oil on canvas, 30 x 25". Private collection.

Benson began winning awards in l890 with his dramatic interior studies, won national and international recognition for his luminous plein air paintings in the early 1900s and was still garnering prizes in the 1920s and 1930s for his watercolors of sporting scenes and his stunning oils of birds. Benson's last prize was awarded to him for his etchings at the age of 86.

Of all the painters of his generation, Benson alone was able to keep his work fresh and current with contemporary tastes. In the 1930s, when many of Benson's contemporaries were putting down their brushes, critics were still describing his work as "fresh and vital," or as "contemporary" or noted that it captured "the essence of the life of today." Few artists have had so long or so successful a career in so many media.

His studies of his family, wildlife and sport, won for Benson not only every award of his day and the respect of his peers but also the admiration of both the public and the critic as well. His father's fears that he would become just another "starving artist" were never realized. Benson became not only one of the most admired artists of his day but was able to provide handsomely for his family by his career. Except for those works that Benson gave to friends and family, almost everything he created was sold.

<em>Red and Gold</em>, 1915.
Red and Gold, 1915. Oil on canvas, 31 x 39". Butler Institute of Art, Youngstown, Ohio.

As Benson once said, "A man's best chance to produce something which will please others is to represent as faithfully as he can what pleases him, in the way he likes it best." He succeeded admirably.


To read more about Benson's life, see the biography Frank W. Benson: American Impressionist, available in the bookstore of this site.

Copyright © Faith Andrews Bedford, 1999. All Rights Reserved.